Thrombus is a clot or deposit that forms on the surface of a blood vessel or the intima of the heart during blood flow. It can occur in any blood vessel, obstructing blood flow or even causing blood flow to stop.
Antithrombotic drugs are used for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic diseases, and focus on prevention. It is mainly used for the treatment and prevention of acute myocardial infarction and stroke embolism, which can reduce reinfarction and mortality. It can be used to prevent thrombosis, peripheral occlusive vascular disease, intermittent claudication, unstable angina pectoris and etc. after heart valve replacement surgery. The current fast-growing indication is the prevention of deep vein thrombosis after orthopedic surgery.
At present, commonly used antithrombotic drugs can be divided into anticoagulants, antiplatelet aggregation drugs and thrombolytic drugs. Among them, antiplatelet aggregation drugs are commonly used clinical drugs in the process of thrombosis treatment. Antiplatelet aggregation drugs can be divided into the following three categories: inhibition of platelet arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism, increase in platelet cyclic adenosine monophosphate(cAMP), platelet membrane receptor antagonists. Platelet membrane receptor antagonists include platelet adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor antagonists and platelet glycoprotein(GP) IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists. The advent of platelet GP IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists is an important milestone in antiplatelet therapy, representative drugs such as Abciximab, Tirofiban, Lamifiban, Eptifibatide etc.
Tirofiban hydrochloride is the first non-polypeptide platelet membrane GP IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist, which inhibits platelet aggregation and thrombosis by blocking the binding of platelet membrane IIb/IIIa receptors to coagulation factor I. Tirofiban hydrochloride combined with heparin is mainly used for the treatment of unstable angina pectoris, non-Q wave myocardial infarction, prevention of cardiac ischemic events. It is also used for coronary angioplasty or intracoronary atherectomy in patients with coronary ischemic syndrome to prevent cardiac ischemic complications related to sudden coronary occlusion after treatment.